Citation ethics

Why do we have to cite?

  • The law (copyright) imposes it to us.
  • Anybody can find the resource from that were gained information.
  • It´s possible distinguish own ideas from borrowed.
  • We prove orientation in the field of subject (knowledge about respected specialists, reputable journals, …).


Plagiarism is a serious offense punishable by copyright and the University disciplinary rules. It can has several forms:

  • Copy text/picture/video … and pass it off as your own;
  • non-citation of the resource from which the author gain information (albeit unintentionally);
  • inexact/incomplete/negligent cite (not possible identify the resource);
  • stating citation which did not use during writing (in an effort make a better impression).

Unintentional plagiarism is plagiarism! Learn to quote correctly and use citation manager. This will prevent unnecessary problems.

You can do Anti-plagiarism control of your work yourself before a submission on Odevzdej.cz. Upload a file, fill in e-mail and after check you receive a document with marked parts that are coincide with other seminar/final/scientific works or free access texts on the Internet.

(Note: No every marked part of text is really plagiarism. For example, a statement at the beginning of the final thesis are all the same; or if you use a quotation and you mark this part of the text quotation marks, it is alright. Maximum sameness with other works should be total to 5 percent).

Generally known information = indisputable, easily verifiable (e.g., the boiling point of water is 100 °C), not have to be quote. For specific data (e.g., an altitude) is proper to state the cited source because mentioned data can be different a little.   

Paraphrase = retelling a foreign idea in your own words, create a new formulation, you must cite an original source

Quote = literally taken statement (e.g., definition of term), in a text of work is necessarily to mark it quotation marks (alternatively plus italics) and cite an original source

Citation = shortened marking of a source directly in a text which serves as a joint cited text/picture with a list of bibliographic citation  

Bibliographic citation = systematically organized data which definitely identify used source of information, mentioned in a list at the end of a work.

Citation standard = a set of valid rules for creation of bibliographic citations. At the UVPS Brno an international valid norm is most often used ČSN ISO 690, but exist many other e.g., MLA, APA, ACS, NLM (check a citation standard to choose from the supervisor). You can find how to create a bibliographic citation correctly, including examples, in the Manual for creating documents citations according to the ČSN ISO 690.

The chosen citation norm has to be uniform throughout the work.


Citation manager and citation generator

JThese are programs for managing and generating, easy of work.